Multinationals in Emerging Markets: Greater Transparency Needed

 

Der Korruptionswahrnehmungsindex, (auch Internationaler Korruptionsindex oder Bestechungsindex) international auch englisch Corruption Perception(s) Index (CPI), wird seit von Transparency International, einer Nichtstaatlichen Organisation, die sich dem Kampf gegen Korruption widmet, weltweit erhoben.

Die Gelder konnten von den Spendern zumeist von der Steuer abgesetzt werden, und die Geber blieben anonym. A high degree of accountability and transparency discourages corruption, or the abuse of public office for private gain. Da griffen etliche Parlamentarier noch schnell zu. Paradise lost among Maldives dodgy land deals Should tourists run for cover as a storm of corruption allegations sweeps across the Maldives? A high degree of accountability and transparency discourages corruption, or the abuse of public office for private gain.

Corruption Perceptions Index 2017

According to a new report by Transparency International, of the fastest-growing emerging markets companies scored an average of just on a point scale measuring transparency, which is even less than the the group scored in In fact, 75 percent of companies scored less than 5, highlighting the magnitude of the problem.

The African Development Bank AfDB is a regional multilateral development bank, engaged in promoting the economic development and social progress of countries on the continent. The current CPIA strives to achieve a maximum level of uniformity and consistency across all regional member countries surveyed.

Also, and in order to comply with the Paris and Rome declarations on Aid Effectiveness, Harmonization and Alignment, the AfDB has modified the questionnaire and guidelines for its CPIA to be in line with those of the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, thus increasing the comparability and synergy among systems. The CPIA is carried out by a group of country economists with vast experience in policy analysis.

The knowledge of these experts is complemented with that of local contacts that provide both quantitative and qualitative insights. Peer discussions are also used to monitor the quality of the findings. Both levels of accountability are enhanced by transparency in decision-making, public audit institutions, access to relevant and timely information, and public and media scrutiny.

National and sub-national governments should be appropriately weighted. Each of three dimensions are rated separately: The questionnaire can be accessed here: The CPIA is a three-phase process involving i the rating of countries by country teams; ii the review of all ratings by sector experts; and iii the endorsement of final ratings at open discussions between country teams and reviewers.

The data set has been published annually since The Governance Ratings were compiled between September and November and published in March The data is publicly available online at https: Combination of quantitative data and qualitative expert assessments Data provider: The Bertelsmann Stiftung BF was founded in as a private foundation. As a think tank they work toward improved education, a just and efficient economic system, a preventative healthcare system, a vibrant civil society and greater international understanding.

The BF is independent and nonpartisan. It designs, launches and runs its own projects. The indicators are calculated using quantitative data from international organisations and then supplemented by qualitative assessments from recognised country experts.

For each SGI survey, individual countries are evaluated by two or more leading experts. The SGI Codebook, a detailed questionnaire, provides a clear explanation for each of the questions, so that all experts share a common understanding of the questions http: The quantitative data are compiled centrally by the SGI project team from official, publicly accessible statistics primarily from OECD sources.

This thorough process is designed to ensure the validity and reliability of expert assessments. First published in , this is now an annual publication. The most recent Sustainable Governance Indicators assess the period beginning November and ending November The Sustainable Governance Indicators data is publicly available online http: Qualitative expert survey Data provider: The Bertelsmann Stiftung is independent and nonpartisan.

The Transformation Index provides the framework for an exchange of good practice among agents of reform. Within this framework, the Bertelsmann Stiftung Transformation Index BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of countries. The scores are based on detailed country reports which assess 52 questions divided into 17 criteria.

Assessments are provided by two experts per country. Country assessments consist of two sections: Scores are given by a country expert, which are then reviewed blind by a second country expert who also provides a second independent rating of the country.

These scores by experts are then verified and discussed by regional coordinators to ensure intra and inter-regional comparability in ratings.

In addition, BF has also instituted an extra layer of verification to ensure the scores provided match the qualitative descriptions for each country. Scores are assigned on a scale of with 10 being the lowest level of corruption and 1 being the highest. The BTI codebook is accessible here: The BTI is based on a qualitative expert survey in which written assessments are translated into numerical ratings and examined in a multi-stage review process so as to make them comparable both within and across regions.

The process of country assessment has both a qualitative and quantitative component, in each case performed by two country experts. As a rule, one foreign and one local expert are involved in the evaluation process; this ensures that both external and internal perspectives are taken into account in the course of assessment and helps counteract subjective influence. In total, experts from leading research institutions around the world contribute to the production of the country reports.

In order to ensure the validity, reliability and comparability of the assessment, each individual score undergoes a multi-step process of review by the country experts, the regional coordinators, the project team and the BTI board. The scores and responses provided by the experts for each of the 49 indicators are initially reviewed by regional coordinators, who examine the content to ensure it is both complete and consistent.

Country scores pass through an intra-regional review stage followed by an inter-regional review and ratings aggregation. The data is taken from the forthcoming BTI report, which will be published in March , and data will be made publically available online at www. The assessment was made as of 31 January EIU Year of publication: Risk evaluations based on qualitative and quantitative indicators Data provider: Since then, it has grown into a global research and advisory firm that produces business intelligence for policy makers worldwide.

Country Risk Ratings are designed to provide in-depth and timely analysis of the risks of financial exposure in more than countries. The economic and political reports produced by EIU analysts are subjected to a rigorous review process before publication.

Scores are given as integers on a scale from 0 very low incidence of corruption to 4 very high incidence of corruption. The score is a generalised composite measure of corruption that includes an assessment of all areas covered by the indicative questions.

Country risk assessments have been produced by the EIU since the early s. Updated summaries are provided monthly for countries and quarterly for the rest.

The CPI draws on risk rating data available as of September Qualitative expert assessment Data provider: Founded in , Freedom House is an independent watchdog organisation that supports the expansion of freedom around the world. Freedom House supports democratic change, monitors freedom and advocates for democracy and human rights.

The reports focus on democratic progress and setbacks. Each report focuses on the following thematic areas: The latter were recommended by relevant authorities and are regional or country specialists. A range of sources were used in compiling the report, including: Ratings run from 1 lowest level of corruption to 7 highest level of corruption and allow for half-point and quarter-point intermediate scores e.

For all 29 countries in NIT, Freedom House—in consultation with the report authors, a panel of academic advisers, and a group of regional expert reviewers—has provided numerical ratings in the seven categories listed above. The ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of democratic progress. Authors of individual country reports suggest preliminary ratings in all seven categories covered by the study, ensuring that substantial evidence is provided where a score change is proposed.

Report authors are given the opportunity to dispute any revised rating that differs from the original by more than 0. More information can be found here: The data is publicly available online at: Commercial business expert assessment Data provider: Founded in , IHS Global Insight is a global information company employing more than 5, people in more than 30 countries around the world. It provides a wide range of online services covering macroeconomics, country risk and individual sector analysis.

The six factors are political, economic, legal, tax operational and security risk. The assessments are made by over in-house country specialists, who also draw on the expert opinions of in-country freelancers, clients and other contacts.

This threatens a company's ability to operate in a country, or opens it up to legal or regulatory penalties and reputational damage. The ratings range from a minimum of 1. Scores provided by country analysts are reviewed and benchmarked by IHS Global Insight's risk specialists at both the regional and global level. The latter were recommended by relevant authorities and are regional or country specialists.

A range of sources were used in compiling the report, including: Corruption Question s The Freedom House experts are asked to explore a range of indicative questions, including: Scores Ratings run from 1 lowest level of corruption to 7 highest level of corruption and allow for half-point and quarter-point intermediate scores e. The score is a generalised composite measure of corruption that includes an assessment of all areas covered by the indicative questions.

Country scores are reviewed at the regional level and then centrally by the Freedom House academic advisory board. Data availability The report has been published annually since The Nations in Transit data coverage is from 1 January through 31 December GI Data Provider Founded in , IHS is a global information company employing more than 5, people in more than 30 countries around the world. It provides a wide range of online services covering macroeconomics, country risk and individual sector analysis.

The six factors are political, economic, legal, tax operational and security risk. The corruption risk score used in the CPI is drawn largely from the evaluation of operational risk, but also builds on the insight of the country experts in analysing the other areas of risk. The assessments are made by over in-house country specialists, who also draw on the expert opinions of in-country freelancers, clients and other contacts. Corruption, particularly as it affects operational activities for businesses.

There is analytical emphasis on the economic and political drivers of the problem. From a business perspective, corruption is a particular concern in relation to obtaining business permits and favourable policy and planning decisions. Scores The ratings range from a minimum of 1. Scores provided by country analysts are reviewed and benchmarked by IHS Global Insight's risk specialists at both the regional and global level.

Data availability The Country Risk Rating System has been available since and is continuously maintained. The data for the CPI was received in October More than a business school, IMD collaborates with individuals, teams and organisations to resolve real business issues, build capabilities and prepare for the future.

The study uses criteria in order to obtain a multifaceted image of the competitiveness of nations, defined as following: IMD calls upon local and foreign enterprises operating in a given economy, and surveys both nationals and expatriates, so as to add an international perspective on local environments. In 4, business executives responded.

The IMD World Competitiveness Centre works in collaboration with 54 partner institutes around the world to assure the validity and relevance of data.

Corruption Question s Survey respondents were asked: Scores Answers are given on a 1 - 6 scale which is then converted to a 0 - 10 scale where 0 is the highest level of perceived corruption and 10 is the lowest. The data was gathered between January and April , and published in May PERC publishes fortnightly newsletters, which are available to subscribers, on a number of issues.

The data for the CPI was gathered from the corruption newsletter, which gathers and interprets data from an executive opinion survey of local and expatriate businesspeople. The survey was conducted via face-to-face, telephone and online interviews. Business people were asked about both the country in which they currently work and their country of origin. The results of the 11 separate scores for each position and institution were averaged to give one score for each country.

The same questions and survey methodology were employed in each country surveyed. Individual respondents were asked both about the country they were from and the country they currently work in. Data availability The survey dates back 20 years and is conducted annually. The data used for the CPI was gathered in a survey carried out between December and February and published in March The data is available to subscribers.

ICRG ratings form the basis of an early warning system for opportunities and pitfalls, country-by-country. ICRG staff collect political information and convert it to risk points on the basis of a consistent pattern of evaluation.

Political risk assessments and other political information form the basis of ICRG risk ratings. It is therefore possible for the user to check through the information and data so as to assess the ratings against their own assessments, or against some other risk ratings system. Corruption Question s This is an assessment of corruption within the political system.

The most common form of corruption met directly by businesses is financial corruption in the form of demands for special payments and bribes connected with import and export licenses, exchange controls, tax assessments, police protection, or loans.

The measure is most concerned with actual or potential corruption in the form of excessive patronage, nepotism, job reservations, exchange of favours, secret party funding, and suspiciously close ties between politics and business. Scores The corruption scores are given on a scale of 0 highest potential risk to 6 lowest potential risk. Data availability The ICRG model was created in and the data is made available on a monthly basis. Dreistigkeit und Raffgier lohnen sich in Bayern.

Dreistigkeit und Raffgier lohnt sich. In der Pressemitteilung der Bayerischen Staatskanzlei vom Da griffen etliche Parlamentarier noch schnell zu.

Auf Fragen der Journalisten zum Skandal der Vetternwirtschaft antwortete er: Die Dunkelziffer ist unbekannt. Horst Seehofer , CSU: Dass die Vetternwirtschaft zu verbieten ist, wurde aber bereits diskutiert.

Die Namen dieser Abgeordneten wurden nicht genannt: Die Vetternwirtschaft war von Hans-Herbert von Arnim schon kritisiert worden, Barbara Stamm musste eingestehen, dass die Abgeordneten darauf nicht reagierten. Neben dem Bundesverfassungsgericht hat das auch der Bayerische Rechnungshof als verfassungswidrig beanstandet.

Der Staat als fette Beute. Die Fraktionen schwimmen im Geld. Mit seiner Kritik steht von Arnim nicht alleine da: Sie warf dem Parteienkritiker von Arnim einen Generalangriff auf die demokratische Grundordnung vor. Zuerst stimmte er von Arnim zu: Damit haben die wenigsten Parlamentarer Anspruch auf Geld. Einige Selbstbereicherer als abschreckende Beispiele: Im Februar heiratete sie ihn.

Bayerische Selbstbediener , SZ, Doch die Abgordneten wollen deshalb die Koalition nicht platzen lassen. Koalition muss bis April halten. Neujahrsempfang deutlich teurer, OVB, 5. Wenn es neue Posten zu verteilen gibt herrscht unter den Parteien nahezu Einigkeit: Die bisherigen Abgeordneten waren oft nicht ausgelastet: Schluss mit Kauders Kauderwelsch -- Bestechung bestrafen!

Keine Ermittlungen wegen Wulffs Flitterwochen , stern. Gegen ihn wird immer noch ermittelt Warum so lange? Politiker erhalten eine Ehrensold auch wenn sie ihre Ehre selbst abgegeben haben. Der Teppich wurde vom deutschen Geheimdienst kostenfrei nach Berlin gebracht und nicht versteuert. Ich vermute, den Flug von Gerhard Schindler zahlte der Steuerzahler. Insbesondere die Ausstattung der Ausschussvorsitzenden sei "in keinster Weise" [falscher Superlativ; "kein" kann man nicht steigern.

Der Europaausschuss des Landtages reiste vor kurzem nach Indien. Oder nur den derzeit kalten Temperaturen in MItteleuropa entkommen? Sie sind bis zum Anschlag belastet. Zulangen bei den Zulagen , OVB, Zudem besuchte Ratzinger im September Berlin.