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Dennoch ist der Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch in den Industrieländern immer noch deutlich höher als in den Schwellenländern. Jetzt in den Cannabis-Aktien-Index investieren! Religionen — Volkszählung Anmerkung:

Saudi Arabia’s Dangerous Geopolitical Game

William Holbrook, a company spokesman, said that the ExxonMobil had followed "clear guidance from the White House and Treasury Department when its representatives signed [in May ] documents involving ongoing oil and gas activities in Russia with Rosneft".

ExxonMobil is organized functionally into a number of global operating divisions. It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as Imperial Oil Limited All natural gas activities are conducted by its subsidiary, XTO Energy. As of December 31, , ExxonMobil owned In Canada, the company holds 5. In Argentina, ExxonMobil holds 0. In Africa, upstream operations are concentrated in Angola where it owns 0. Together with Rosneft , it has developed In Australia, ExxonMobil held 1.

In Papua New Guinea, it holds 1. ExxonMobil markets products around the world under the brands of Exxon , Mobil , and Esso. Exxon is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states.

Esso is ExxonMobil's primary gasoline brand worldwide except in Australia and New Zealand, where the Mobil brand is used exclusively. In Colombia, both the Esso and Mobil brands are used. ExxonMobil Chemical is a petrochemical company which was created by merging Exxon's and Mobil's chemical industries.

Its principal products includes basic olefins and aromatics , ethylene glycol , polyethylene , and polypropylene along with speciality lines such as elastomers , plasticizers , solvents , process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins. The company also produces synthetic lubricant base stocks as well as lubricant additives, propylene packaging films and catalysts.

The company was an industry leader in metallocene catalyst technology to make unique polymers with improved performance. ExxonMobil is the largest producer of butyl rubber. Infineum, a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell, is manufacturing and marketing crankcase lubricant additives, fuel additives , and specialty lubricant additives, as well as automatic transmission fluids , gear oils , and industrial oils.

ExxonMobil conducts research on clean energy technologies, including algae biofuels , biodiesel made from agricultural waste, carbonate fuel cells , and refining crude oil into plastic by using a membrane and osmosis instead of heat.

According to Fortune Global , ExxonMobil was the ninth largest company, sixth largest publicly held corporation , and third largest oil company by revenue.

ExxonMobil's headquarters are located in Irving, Texas. In October , the company stated that it would not move its headquarters to Greater Houston. Before his election as chairman and CEO, Woods was elected president of ExxonMobil and a member of the board of directors in ExxonMobil's environmental record has faced much criticism for its stance and impact on global warming.

From the late s through the s, Exxon funded research broadly in line with the developing public scientific approach. ExxonMobil funded organizations opposed to the Kyoto Protocol and seeking to influence public opinion about the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. In , the New York Attorney General launched an investigation whether ExxonMobil's statements to investors were consistent with the company's decades of extensive scientific research.

Seventeen attorneys general were cooperating on investigations. Scientists and environmental groups have voiced concern that the Sakhalin-I oil and gas project in the Russian Far East, operated by an ExxonMobil subsidiary Exxon Neftegas, threatens the critically endangered western gray whale population.

Christopher Porrino served as Chief Counsel to the Christie administration from January through July and handled negotiations in the case. ExxonMobil is the target of human rights activists for actions taken by the corporation in the Indonesian territory of Aceh. The suit alleges that the ExxonMobil knowingly assisted human rights violations, including torture , murder and rape, by employing and providing material support to Indonesian military forces, who committed the alleged offenses during civil unrest in Aceh.

Human rights complaints involving Exxon's Exxon and Mobil had not yet merged relationship with the Indonesian military first arose in ; the company denies these accusations and filed a motion to dismiss the suit, which was denied in by a federal judge.

ExxonMobil was ranked as the 12th best of 92 oil, gas, and mining companies on indigenous rights in its Arctic operations. ExxonMobil and American Power, says that he thinks that ExxonMobil is "able to determine American foreign policy and the fate of entire nations".

The book was also reviewed in The Economist , according to which "ExxonMobil is easy to caricature, and many critics have done so It is to Steve Coll's credit that Private Empire, his new book about ExxonMobil, refuses to subscribe to such a simplistic view. It notes that the company shut down its operations in Indonesia to distance itself from the abuses committed against the population by that country's army, and that it decided to drill in Chad only after the World Bank agreed to ensure that the oil royalties were used for the population's benefit.

The review closes by noting that "A world addicted to ExxonMobil's product needs to look in the mirror before being too critical of how relentlessly the company supplies it.

The Valdez spill is 36th worst oil spill in history in terms of sheer volume. The State of Alaska's Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council stated that the spill "is widely considered the number one spill worldwide in terms of damage to the environment". Because carcasses typically sink to the seafloor, it is estimated the death toll may be , seabirds , 2, sea otters , harbor seals , bald eagles , and up to 22 killer whales.

Billions of salmon and herring eggs were also killed. As of , oil remained on or under more than half the sound's beaches, according to a federal survey.

The government-created Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council concluded that the oil disappears at less than 4 percent per year, adding that the oil will "take decades and possibly centuries to disappear entirely".

Of the 27 species monitored by the council, 17 have not recovered. While the salmon population has rebounded, and the orca whales are recovering, the herring population and fishing industry have not. Exxon was widely criticized for its slow response to cleaning up the disaster. John Devens, the Mayor of Valdez, has said his community felt betrayed by Exxon's inadequate response to the crisis. The renamed subsidiary, though wholly Exxon-controlled, has a separate corporate charter and board of directors, and the former Exxon Valdez is now the SeaRiver Mediterranean.

The renamed tanker is legally owned by a small, stand-alone company, which would have minimal ability to pay out on claims in the event of a further accident. In , Exxon still uses more single-hull tankers than the rest of the largest ten oil companies combined, including the Valdez's sister ship, the SeaRiver Long Beach. The refinery produced fuel oils, gasoline, kerosene and solvents.

Naptha and gas oil, secondary products, were also stored in the refinery area. Regulators opened an investigation in response to the pipeline oil spill. On June 14, , a bleeder plug on a tank in the Baton Rouge Refinery failed and began leaking naphtha , a substance that is composed of many chemicals including benzene. On June 18, Baton Rouge refinery representatives told the LDEQ that ExxonMobil's chemical team determined that the June 14 spill was actually a level 2 incident classification which means that a significant response to the leak was required.

Because the spill estimate and the actual amount of chemicals spilled varied drastically, the LDEQ launched an in-depth investigation on June 16 to determine the actual amounts of chemicals spilled as well as to find out what information the refinery knew and when they knew it. The July Yellowstone River oil spill was an oil spill from an ExxonMobil pipeline running from Silver Tip to Billings, Montana , which ruptured about 10 miles west of Billings on July 1, , at about A spokesman for ExxonMobil said that the oil is within 10 miles of the spill site.

However, Montana Governor Brian Schweitzer disputed the accuracy of that figure. It did not admit liability. Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. The Exxon brand is still used by ExxonMobil's downstream operations as a brand for certain gas stations, motor fuel and related products the highest concentration of which are located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states.

Standard Oil Company of New Jersey was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mids to the s. As a result, St Mobil gas station Route 1, Saugus, Massachusetts - night view Mobil, previously known as the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, is a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in to form a parent company called ExxonMobil.

It was previously one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mids until the s. Today, Mobil continues as a major brand name within the combined company, as well as still being a gas station sometimes paired with its own store or On the Run. The former Mobil headquarters in Fairfax County, Virginia, were used as ExxonMobil's downstream headquarters[1] until when ExxonMobil consolidated employees into a new corporate campus in Spring, Texas.

The ExxonMobil climate change controversy concerns ExxonMobil's activities related to climate change, especially their views on climate change skepticism. Since the s, ExxonMobil engaged in research, lobbying, advertising, and grant making, some of which were conducted with the purpose of delaying widespread acceptance and action on global warming. From the late s and through the s, Exxon funded internal and university collaborations, broadly in line with the developing public scientific approach.

From the s to mid s, the company was a leader in climate change denial, opposing regulations to curtail global warming. ExxonMobil funded organizations critical of the Kyoto Protocol and sought to undermine public opinion about the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels.

Exxon helped to found and lead the Global Climate Coalition of businesses opposed to the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. More recently it has expressed support for a carbon tax It remained the tallest building west of the Mississippi only until , when Elm Place was built in Dallas.

As of , ExxonMobil is the owner of the building. The building is two blocks east of Louisiana Street; a parking lot is between the two buildings. The Qatar Open also known as Qatar ExxonMobil Open for sponsorship reasons was a men's tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. Other entrants The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds.

The building currently is the headquarters of Exxon Mobil Malaysia. For aesthetics, the north and south elevations are set-back at level 5, while the north elevation facing the public park is further set-back at levels 22 and Tillerson began his career as a civil engineer with Exxon in after graduating with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin.

By he had become general manager of the Exxon USA central production division. In he became president of Exxon Yemen Inc. In Tillerson was elected chair and chief executive of Exxon, the world's sixth largest company by revenue. The name is the phonetic pronunciation of the initials 'S' and 'O' in the name Standard Oil.

In most of the world, the Esso brand and the Mobil brand are the primary brand names of ExxonMobil, with the Exxon brand name in use only in the United States alongside Mobil. The Esso sign in , used in the United States until History In , Standard Oil was broken up into 34 companies, some of which were named "Standard Oil" and had the rights to that brand in certain states the other compani ExxonMobil Corporation, et al.

The suit, based on the common law theory of nuisance, claims monetary damages from the energy industry for the destruction of Kivalina, Alaska by flooding caused by climate change. The damage estimates made by the U.

This lawsuit is an example of greenhouse gas emission liability. Alluding to the seven mythological Pleiades sisters fathered by the titan Atlas, the business usage was popularized in the s by businessman Enrico Mattei, then-head of the Italian state oil company Eni.

The industry group consisted of: Established in by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time. Supreme Court ruled, in a landmark case, that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly. Standard Oil dominated the oil products market initially through horizontal integration in the refining sector, then, in later years vertical integration; the company was an innovator in the development of the business trust.

The Standard Oil trust streamlined production and logistics, lowered costs, and undercut competitors. Rockefeller ran the company as its chairman, until his retirement in Since the late s, ExxonMobil Corporation, along with its predecessor companies, Mobil Oil Corporation and Mobil Oil Indonesia, hired military units of the Indonesian national army to provide security for their gas extraction and liquefaction project in Aceh, Indonesia.

Members of these military units have been accused of perpetrating human rights abuses against local villagers. Fearing for the lives of its employees after a series of attacks, ExxonMobil shut down its Arun natural gas operations in Aceh in March Aceh is located on the northern tip of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

The region is rich in natural resources, including oil and natural gas. On May 1st, , a ruptured ExxonMobil pipeline in the state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, spilled more than a million gallons into the delta. Past oil spills in the delta's creeks have been left to fester for decades, polluting the air, soil, and water of impoverished communities. The Billings Refinery is an oil refinery located in Billings, Montana. The refinery is currently owned and operated by ExxonMobil. Archived from the original PDF on 17 September Retrieved 25 July External links Exxon Mobil website The Jacksonville, Maryland, ExxonMobil gas leak case is a series of lawsuits against ExxonMobil as a result of a February underground gasoline leak from an ExxonMobil service station in Jacksonville, Maryland.

Case history In February , nearly 26, gallons of gasoline leaked from a Jacksonville, Maryland, ExxonMobil station over a period of 37 days. The case put a spotlight on MTBE, a gasoline additive known to cause cancer in laboratory rats. Additionally, the lawsuits alleged ExxonMobil of fraud, a charge eligible for punitive damages if found guilty. A first lawsuit was represented by Snyder, Weltchek, and Snyder. The fraud alleged in this suit was ExxonMobil's actions of intentional malice through their effective non-action in stopping the leak and providing adequate monitoring to prevent the spill.

Another large group of plaintiffs is currently Revesz, Rachael 18 December It is specializing on exploration, extraction, production, refinement, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products.

The company is controlled by the Russian government through the Rosneftegaz holding company. Its name is a portmanteau of the Russian words Rossiyskaya neft' Russian: Rosneft became Russia's leading oil company after purchasing assets of former oil company Yukos at state-run auctions. This is a list of oil refineries. For some countries, the refinery list is further categorized state-by-state. The list appears in one of their December issues. It is about 45 pages in length, and updated each year with additions, deletions, name changes, capacity changes and other refinements.

World's largest refineries No. This page lists the largest annual and quarterly earnings and losses in corporate history. In general terms the oil and gas industry is the one generating both largest annual and quarterly earnings. In contrast, both the annual and quarterly losses are more distributed across industries. Telecommunications and financial services, however, are represented quite often on the lists of largest losses. Note that some record earning may be caused by nonrecurring revenue, like Vodafone in disposal of its interest in Verizon Wireless [1] or Fannie Mae in benefit for federal income taxes.

The Qatar Open, currently known as the Qatar ExxonMobil Open for sponsorship reasons, is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. Past finals Records Most singles titles: The ship was able to transport up t Nalco Water, an Ecolab Company, is a Naperville, Illinois-based supplier of water, energy and air improvement solutions and services for industrial and institutional markets. The company sells various products and services designed to reduce energy, water and other natural resource consumption, enhance air quality, minimize environmental releases and improve productivity and end products.

By a series of mergers and acquisition, its name was changed to Nalco Chemical Company - ; then Ondeo Nalco Company - ; and in to Nalco Holding Company. It became a subsidiary of Ecolab Inc.

Among its products is Corexit - an oi ExxonMobil Electrofrac is an in situ shale oil extraction technology proposed by ExxonMobil for converting kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.

Technology ExxonMobil Electrofrac uses a series of fractures created in the oil shale formation. Preferably these fractures should be longitudinal vertical fractures created from horizontal wells and conducting electricity from the heel to the toe of each heating well.

For conductivity, an electrically-conductive material such as calcined petroleum coke is injected into the wells in fractures, forming a heating element. This allows opposing electrical charges to be applied at either end.

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that electrical continuity is unaffected by kerogen conversion and that hydrocarbons are expelled from heated oil shale even under in situ stress. Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil" sorted by revenue Big Oil is a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, also known as supermajors.

Big oil is often associated with the fossil fuels lobby and also used to refer to the industry as a whole in a pejorative or derogatory manner.

The East-Prinovozemelsky field also referred as Vostochno-Prinovozemelskoye structure — meaning: It is the continuation of the continental West Siberian hydrocarbon province. History The field is divided into three license blocks: Initial stages of exploration activities would to be financed by BP. He is the leader of the Engagement for Citizenship and Development party. On 11 November , he was chosen by seven opposition leaders to be their joint presidential candidate in the Democratic Republic of the Congo general election.

He served as the company's director-general in Ethiopia as his last post. His involvement in politics began in when he attended the Sovereign National Conference, which brought together delegates from different regions and organizations to campaign for a multi-party democracy. Mobutu Sese Seko, the authoritarian President of Zaire as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was then called , allowed the conference to take place but ignored it.

Fayulu did not enter politics full time until It operates three fields in the Okhotsk Sea: Chayvo, Odoptu and Arkutun-Dagi. It has set multiple industry records for length, rate of penetration and directional drilling.

Fortune is a reference to a list maintained by the American business magazine Fortune. The list is of the 1, largest American companies, ranked by revenues. Eligible companies are any which are incorporated or authorized to do business in the United States, and for which revenues are publicly available this list has a larger universe than "public companies", as the term is commonly understood, meaning "companies whose common stock trades on a stock market". The Fortune is the subset of the list that is its largest companies.

The list draws the attention of business readers seeking to learn the influential players in the American economy and prospective sales targets, as these companies tend to have large budgets and staff needs. Walmart was number 1 on the list for five of the seven years from to , interrupted only by ExxonMobil in and Mobil 1 is a brand of synthetic motor oil and other automotive lubrication products.

Originally developed by the Mobil oil company, and is now globally marketed and sold by ExxonMobil. Mobil 1 engine oil was introduced in In it switched to Benetton, until Team Lotus also used Mobil 1 in From until , it spons It began operations in MPN is the second largest producer of crude oil in Nigeria after Shell.

The following is a list of publicly traded companies having the greatest market capitalization. This list is primarily based on the Financial Times Global rankings. The list of non-public companies by estimated market value is attached for comparison.

Market capitalization is calculated from the share price as recorded on selected day multiplied by the number of outstanding shares. Investment companies are not included in the list. Leatherhead is a town in Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Mole, and at the edge of the contiguous built-up area of London. Its local district is Mole Valley. Records exist of the place from Anglo Saxon England.

It has a combined theatre and cinema, which is at the centre of the re-modelling following late 20th century pedestrianisation.

The streets bypassing the town centre close and feature in the annual London-Surrey cycle classic. Just north-east of the midpoint of Surrey[n 1] and at a junction of ancient north—south and east—west roads, elements of the town have been a focus for transport throughout its history. A main early spur to this was the construction of the bridge over the seasonally navigable River Mole in the early medieval period.

In the late 20th century the M25 motorway was built nearby. Leatherhead is typical of many towns which form part of the London commuter belt with many residents commuting dail It is a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Since then, XTO Energy's resource portfolio has tripled through several acquisitions. The company owns interests in approximately 40, active oil and natural gas sites across North America.

Raymond born August 13, is an American businessman, and the chief executive officer CEO and chairman of ExxonMobil from to He had previously been the CEO of Exxon since He joined the company in and has been president since , and a director since He graduated from Watertown High School in Raymond received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin—Madison in He was awarded an honorary doctorate from the same university in Career Raymond began working for Exxon in Raymond became a director of Exxon in and in he became the President of the company.

This list comprises the world's largest companies by consolidated revenue as of , according to the Fortune Global tally. American retail corporation Walmart has been the world's largest company since Only companies that publish financial data and report figures to a government agency are included. On the Run is a flagship convenience store brand developed by ExxonMobil, used at Exxon and Mobil stations in the United States, and at Esso and Mobil stations internationally.

West Qurna is believed to hold 43 billion barrels 6. ExxonMobil is set to increase the current production of 0. Exxon Building may refer to: The group has supermarkets across the island, with over 50 outlets of Cheers convenience stores island-wide. The supermarket has a slogan known as Singapore's very own. A global warming conspiracy theory invokes claims that the scientific consensus on global warming is based on conspiracies to produce manipulated data or suppress dissent.

It is one of a number of tactics used in climate change denial to legitimize political and public controversy disputing this consensus. Human influence has been detected in warming of the atmosphere and the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductio Petroleum of Venezuela is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company.

It has activities in exploration, production, refining and exporting oil, as well as exploration and production of natural gas. Since its founding on 1 January with the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry, PDVSA has dominated the oil industry of Venezuela, the world's fifth largest oil exporter. Oil reserves in Venezuela are the largest in the world, and the state-owned PDVSA provides the government of Venezuela with substantial funding resources.

Imperial Oil Limited French: Imperial Oil was based in Toronto, Ontario, until The joint venture was formed in April , when the Kazakhstan government granted an exclusive year right to Tengizchevroil LLP TCO to develop the Tengiz and Korolevskoye oil fields located in the north-eastern reaches of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan.

History and operations From a two-company joint venture in between Kazakhstan state oil company KazakhOil, now KazMunayGas, and the USA company Chevron Tengizchevroil expanded in into a four-company consortium: Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil", sorted by latest published revenue. Former ExxonMobil offices in Downtown Houston were vacated in early ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge. Map of the Yellowstone River watershed.

Retrieved November 20, Retrieved January 12, The World's Biggest Public Companies". The World's Top 25 Companies". Kell, John June 11, Retrieved October 19, Who Made the List". Retrieved January 3, Retrieved April 21, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved July 11, Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved August 9, ExxonMobil and American Power".

Dolph Briscoe Center for American History. Retrieved January 4, Retrieved January 9, Krabbendam, Hans; van Minnen, Cornelis A. Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations: Western, Japanese, and Chinese Corporations in China, — University of California Press.

Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Retrieved January 6, The United States in Asia: Herbert, Vernon; Bisio, Attilio A Project that Had to Succeed. Nowell, Gregory Patrick Mercantile States and the World Oil Cartel, — America's Economic Way of War: The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, Retrieved 18 September Ideas and Movements that Shaped America: A Challenge in Adaption. Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry 9, illustrated ed.

BP acquires Veba Oel and Aral. Retrieved January 10, Solar Adventures Around the World. From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity. Jones, Geoffrey; Bouamane, Loubna Roston, Eric November 4, History of Induction Heating and Melting.

Memorandum by Chief Judge Robert L. Nuclear Waste in Your Backyard: Roston, Eric December 24, Retrieved January 15, Exxon and the Crandon Mine Controversy.

Colorado School of Mines. Retrieved March 28, Dawson, Jennifer January 15, Ein schwacher Anstieg wird für die Folgejahre erwartet, aber besonders der Bedarf an Erdgas wird steigen. Erdöltransportwege wie Nord Stream oder die Erdölleitung Freundschaft und deren Bewirtschaftung können Gegenstand zwischenstaatlicher Energiestreitigkeiten , aber auch Basis von weitreichenden Wirtschaftsentwicklungen sein.

Die Ölpreise sind wichtige Indikatoren für die Wirtschaftsentwicklung. Unter dem Stichwort Globales Ölfördermaximum wird eine Erschöpfung der weltweiten wirtschaftlich ausbeutbaren Vorräte diskutiert. Marion King Hubbert sagte in den er-Jahren den Höhepunkt der amerikanischen Erdölförderung korrekt für das Jahr voraus. Dieser Ausdruck deutet darauf hin, dass das Erdöl schon früh zu Beleuchtungszwecken diente. Dies ist die erste nachweisbare staatliche Regulierung von Erdöl.

Das Wort Petroleum ist seit dem Angelehnt an Petroleum wurde Erdöl im Deutschen anfangs auch Berg- oder Steinöl genannt, bevor sich die heutige Bezeichnung im Erdöl ist bereits seit einigen Tausend Jahren bekannt. Dort wandelt sich das normalerweise relativ dünnflüssige Öl durch die Reaktion mit Sauerstoff und den Verlust leicht flüchtiger Bestandteile in eine teerartige Substanz, sogenanntes Bitumen oder Asphalt , um.

Diese Substanz war schon vor Die Menschen nutzten sie unter anderem im Schiffbau zum Kalfatern: Gesner in den USA erteilt wurde. Die Herstellung von Petroleum als Leuchtmittel blieb bis zum Aufstreben der Automobilindustrie in den ersten Jahrzehnten des Jahrhunderts der Hauptzweck der Erdölförderung. Heute ist Erdöl einer der wichtigsten Rohstoffe der Industriegesellschaft. Es ist der bedeutendste Energieträger, insbesondere als Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Treibstoffen , sowie Ausgangsstoff für zahlreiche Produkte der chemischen Industrie, wie Düngemittel, Kunststoffe, Lacke und Farben oder auch Medikamente.

Als Folge von Gesners Entdeckung begann in der zweiten Hälfte des Man wusste zwar bereits, dass bei einigen Tiefbohrungen nach Sole für die Salzgewinnung Erdöl in die Bohrlöcher eingesickert war, aber gezielt nach Erdöl gebohrt hatte bis dahin noch niemand. In Wietze befindet sich heute das Deutsche Erdölmuseum. Weltberühmt wurde die Ölbohrung, die Edwin L. Drake bohrte im Auftrag des amerikanischen Industriellen George H. Daher gelten der August und Titusville als die historisch bedeutenderen Daten bzw.

Wichtig ist hierbei, dass das Wasser nahe dem Meeresboden ruhig ist und sich nur sehr selten mit Wasser aus geringeren Meerestiefen mischt. Dadurch können sich in der betreffenden Meeresbodenregion leicht sauerstoffarme oder -freie Bedingungen einstellen. Diese verhindern die vollständige Zersetzung der Algenbiomasse — ein Faulschlamm entsteht.

So bilden sich über einige Jahrmillionen hinweg mächtige Sedimentfolgen mit hohem Anteil an organischem Material. Im Laufe weiterer Jahrmillionen werden die biomassereichen Abfolgen, durch Überdeckung mit weiteren Sedimenten und der kontinuierlichen Absenkung der Sedimentstapel in etwas tiefere Bereiche der oberen Erdkruste Subsidenz , erhöhten Drücken und erhöhten Temperaturen ausgesetzt.

Das meiste heute geförderte Erdöl ist stattdessen aus dem immer noch relativ lipidreichen Kerogentyp II Exinit hervorgegangen, der typisch für marine Ablagerungsräume ist. Es entsteht zwar weiter Gas, aber kein Öl mehr, sondern ein fester Kohlenstoffrückstand. Bei der natürlichen Niedrigtemperatur-Reifung der Kerogene zu Kohlenwasserstoffen fungieren offenbar zudem die Tonminerale im Sediment als Katalysatoren.

Dies entspricht im Regelfall einer Versenkungstiefe von bis Metern. Somit ist aus dem einstigen biomassereichen Sediment ein kohlenwasserstoffführender Tonstein oder, im Fall dass ein relativ hoher Anteil des Planktons aus Kalkalgen bestand, ein kohlenwasserstoffführender Mergel oder Mergelkalkstein geworden.

Solche feinkörnigen Gesteine, deren Kohlenwasserstoffgehalt auf einen ursprünglich hohen Gehalt an Biomasse zurückgeht, werden als Erdölmuttergesteine engl.: Die meisten Erdölmuttergesteine entstammen dem Zeitraum von bis Millionen Jahren vor heute Unterdevon bis Unterkreide. Letztgenannte werden als unkonventionelle Lagerstätten bezeichnet, weil die Ölförderung aus diesen Gesteinen mit althergebrachten konventionellen Methoden nicht rentabel ist.

Ab dem Austritt der Kohlenwasserstoffe in das Nebengestein, auch als primäre Migration bezeichnet, spricht man traditionell von Erdöl bzw. Innerhalb des Porenraumes des Nebengesteins wandern Öl und Gas dann aufgrund ihrer relativ geringen Dichte in Richtung der Erdoberfläche.

Grundwasserströme sorgen hierbei auch für einen seitlichen lateralen Transport. Öl und Gas können auf ihrem Weg nach oben auf undurchlässige, weil geringporöse, Gesteinsschichten treffen. Sind diese Teil einer geologischen Struktur, die aufgrund ihrer Form eine weitere Wanderung auch in seitlicher Richtung verhindert, reichern sich Öl und Gas unterhalb dieser abdichtenden Gesteinsschicht an. Die entsprechende Struktur wird als geologische Falle bezeichnet.

Solche Fallen entstehen beispielsweise durch den Aufstieg von Salzstöcken. In den höchsten Bereichen der Lagerstätte befindet sich aufgrund der geringsten Dichte das Gas. Man spricht in diesem Zusammenhang auch von einer Gaskappe. Unterhalb des ölgesättigten Bereiches der Lagerstätte wird der Porenraum des Speichergesteins von dem Grundwasser gefüllt, das ohnehin im Porenraum von Sedimentgesteinen stets vorhanden ist, und das von Öl und Gas aus dem Bereich der Lagerstätte verdrängt worden ist.

Ein geringer Wasseranteil ist jedoch auch im öl- und gasgesättigten Bereich der Lagerstätte noch vorhanden. Dieses wird als Lagerstättenwasser bezeichnet. Da das geringporöse Deckgestein engl.: Im Fall, dass Erdöl durch diese so genannte tertiäre Migration an oder bis dicht unter die Erdoberfläche gelangt, entstehen Ölsande sowie Asphalt - bzw.

Bei untermeerischen Gasaustritten kann sich bei geeigneten Bedingungen an diesen Stellen im Meeresboden Methanhydrat bilden. Nach Bildung einer Lagerstätte in einer Fallenstruktur kann das darin enthaltene Erdöl, z. Dabei wird das Öl in Gas vorwiegend Methan und Bitumen überführt. Alternative Hypothesen zur Entstehung von förderwürdigen Erdgas- und Erdölvorkommen verneinen, dass diese in geologischen Zeiträumen aus sedimentärer Biomasse hervorgegangen sind.

Die deshalb auch unter der Bezeichnung abiotische oder abiogenetische Hypothesen zusammengefassten Ansätze gehen überdies davon aus, dass es sich bei Erdöl und Erdgas nicht um fossile Energieträger handelt, sondern um juvenile und regenerative Energieträger. Frühe moderne abiogenetische Thesen wurden im Während Mendelejew annahm, dass das Erdinnere aus Eisencarbid bestehe, das mit Grundwasser zu Kohlenwasserstoffen reagiere, postulierten Humboldt und Gay-Lussac, dass Kohlenwasserstoffe aus vulkanischen Quellen stammten.

In der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts lassen sich zwei Schulen unterscheiden: Beiden Schulen gemein ist, dass sie den Ursprung der Kohlenwasserstoffe im oberen Erdmantel verorteten, von wo aus diese entlang tiefreichender Störungen , wie sie beispielsweise in Grabenbrüchen auftreten, in die oberen Bereiche der Erdkruste einwanderten.

Hinzu kam, dass aus der Präsenz organischer Verbindungen in Chondriten und dem Nachweis geringer Mengen von kurzkettigen n-Alkanen Methan, Ethan, Propan, Butan in ultramafischen Gesteinen geschlossen wurde, dass im Erdinneren ein stark reduzierendes chemisches Milieu herrsche, das die Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen generell erlaube.

Jahrhunderts wurde von der nächsten Generation der Verfechter der russisch-ukrainischen Hypothese Jack F. Kenney, Wladimir Kutscherow zudem ins Feld geführt, dass einerseits die Umwandlung von Methan in längerkettige n-Alkane nach den Gesetzen der Thermodynamik nur unter den Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen des oberen Mantels günstig sei, andererseits die Umwandlung sauerstoffhaltiger organischer Verbindungen, wie Kohlenhydrate , die Hauptbestandteile pflanzlicher Biomasse, in längerkettige n-Alkane nach den Gesetzen der Thermodynamik generell ungünstig sei.

Einer Arbeitsgruppe um Kutscherow gelang zudem der experimentelle Nachweis, dass Methan unter den Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen des oberen Mantels teilweise zumindest in kurzkettige höhere n-Alkane überführt wird.

Das vermutlich wichtigste Argument gegen die abiogenetischen Thesen ist, dass der obere Mantel sehr wahrscheinlich kein reduzierendes, sondern ein schwach oxydierendes chemisches Milieu aufweist. Das Mengenverhältnis der verschiedenen Kohlenstoffverbindungen in Fluideinschlüssen in Mantelgesteinen zeigt, dass Kohlenstoff im oberen Mantel, wenn nicht in Reinform als Diamant , dann weit überwiegend in Form von Kohlendioxid bzw.

Karbonat vorliegt, und dass er auch in dieser Form in die obere Kruste und an die Erdoberfläche gelangt. Überdies erfolgt der Transport des Kohlendioxids nicht als reines Gas bzw. Fluid, sondern stets gelöst in aufdringendem Magma.

Die Präsenz wirtschaftlich förderbarer Kohlenwasserstoffvorkommen in Kristallingesteinen lässt sich mit modernen, erst in den er Jahren entwickelten Modellen zur Migration von Fluiden in Krustengesteinen erklären.

Hierbei spielt die Permeabilität der Kristallingesteine eine entscheidende Rolle. Ausreichend geklüftetes, relativ oberflächennah liegendes Kristallin im Randbereich eines Sedimentbeckens kann demnach sehr wohl als Speichergestein geeignet sein für biogenetisch entstandene Kohlenwasserstoffe, die aus tief versenkten Muttergesteinen in zentraleren Beckenbereichen stammen. Auch besagt die biogenetische Hypothese, dass sich Erdöl und Erdgas nicht aus frischer, sondern aus bereits teilweise biotisch, teilweise diagenetisch veränderter Biomasse bilden, sogenannten Kerogenen.

Insbesondere in diagenetisch veränderten, ursprünglich biomassereichen marinen Sedimenten , den wahrscheinlichsten Kandidaten für Erdölmuttergesteine, ist das Verhältnis von Sauerstoff zu Kohlenstoff wesentlich kleiner als das Verhältnis von Wasserstoff zu Kohlenstoff, sodass in diesen Sedimenten durchaus thermodynamisch günstige Bedingungen für die Entstehung von Kohlenwasserstoffen herrschen.

Nicht zuletzt sprechen auch Isotopenverhältnisse für die biogenetische These. Die von Kenney, Kutscherow und einigen wenigen weiteren Wissenschaftlern vertretene Ansicht, dass Erdöl- und Erdgaslagerstätten primär das Resultat der vertikalen Migration dynamic fluid injection juveniler Kohlenwasserstoffe aus dem Erdmantel in die obere Kruste seien, und den daraus folgenden Schluss, dass Erdöl und Erdgas keine endlichen Ressourcen seien, dass sich weitgehend ausgeförderte Lagerstätten sogar wieder auffüllten, entbehrt somit einer seriösen wissenschaftlichen Grundlage.

Grundlage für die Erdölsuche ist genaues Kartenmaterial. In bestimmten Gebieten z. Iran kann man Lagerformationen bereits an der Erdoberfläche mittels Luftbildkartierung erkennen. In Gebieten mit mächtiger Überdeckung der tieferen Schichten durch junge Formationen oder im Offshore-Bereich genügt dies nicht.

Auch lassen sich aus Luftfotos alleine keine genauen Gesteinstypen oder deren Alter bestimmen. Interessant sind Stellen, an welchen für darunterliegende Erdölvorkommen typisches Gestein an die Erdoberfläche tritt. Dort werden kleine Gesteinsstücke abgeschlagen und mit einer Lupe bestimmt. Die gezielte Suche nach Erdöl- und Erdgasvorkommen bezeichnet man als geophysikalische Prospektion. Das sichere Aufspüren im Untergrund verborgener Strukturen, in denen sich Öl und oder Erdgas angesammelt haben können, ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten zur wichtigsten Voraussetzung einer erfolgreichen Suche nach Kohlenwasserstoffen Sammelbegriff für Erdöl und Erdgas geworden.

So tritt aus seicht liegenden Lagerstätten ständig Erdöl in geringen Mengen aus. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die seit dem Jahrhundert bekannte, aber mittlerweile versiegte St. Die Suche nach tief liegenden Ölvorkommen erfolgte früher durch eine eingehende Analyse der geologischen Verhältnisse eines Landstrichs.

In der Folge wurden dann an ausgewählten Orten Probebohrungen niedergebracht, von denen ca. Am Beginn der Erkundung steht das Auffinden von Sedimentbecken. Das geschieht häufig durch gravimetrische oder geomagnetische Messungen. Im nächsten Schritt kommt die Reflexionsseismik zum Einsatz.

Dabei werden an der Erdoberfläche akustische Wellen erzeugt, die an den unterschiedlichen Bodenschichten reflektiert werden.

Je nach Einsatz an Land oder im Wasser werden unterschiedliche Verfahren verwendet. In der marinen Seismik werden die seismischen Wellen mit Airguns erzeugt. Die Aufzeichnung der Wellen erfolgt mit Hydrophonen , die entweder am Meeresboden ausgelegt oder hinter einem Schiff an der Meeresoberfläche im Schlepp gezogen werden.

Aus den Laufzeiten und Charakteristiken der reflektierten Signale lassen sich Schichtenprofile errechnen. In der frühen Phase der Prospektion werden 2-D-Messungen durchgeführt, in deren Ergebnis man Schichtenprofile entlang von sich kreuzenden Messlinien erhält. Basierend auf den seismischen Daten werden nun auch erste Erkundungsbohrungen getätigt. Im nächsten Schritt werden in ausgewählten Gebieten seismisch 3-D-Messungen durchgeführt.

Hierbei werden die Punkte zum Erzeugen und Messen seismischer Wellen so ausgelegt, dass man ein dreidimensionales Bild der Gesteinsschichten erhält. In Kombination mit bohrlochgeophysikalischen Messdaten kann nun ein quantitatives Modell der Erdöl- oder Erdgasreserven sowie ein Plan für weitere Bohrungen und zur Förderung erstellt werden. Befindet sich eine Erdöllagerstätte nahe der Erdoberfläche, so kann das darin enthaltene, zu Bitumen verarmte Öl im Tagebau gewonnen werden.

Aus tieferen Lagerstätten wird Erdöl durch Sonden gefördert, die durch Bohrungen bis zur Lagerstätte eingebracht werden.