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Looking at a century of returns, the book provided an in-depth analysis of 17 countries, among them Canada. All comments will be reviewed by one or more moderators before being posted to the site. This should only take a few moments. The subject who is truly loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures.

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In all of these fields, the past 40 years has seen an accelerating shift to an "evidence-based" approach, looking at hard data to evaluate the conventional thinking on which decisions were historically made. The father of evidence-based thinking in medicine is Archie Cochrane, a Scottish physician who first wrote about this concept in the early s - and evidence-based decision making is among the elements of the new health care program of U.

President Barack Obama that hopes to reduce spending by eliminating low-payoff treatments. Fuelled by access to better information and the explosion of processing power, the evidence-based approach has spread into investing, replacing anecdotal observation with the careful examination of data. Looking at a century of returns, the book provided an in-depth analysis of 17 countries, among them Canada. Dimson, Marsh and Staunton turned their attention to whether faster-growing economies translate into superior returns for investors.

They first examined the connection between high-growth economies and emerging markets, looking at the rate of economic growth in 53 countries and ranking these countries from the fastest-growing to the slowest-growing. This confirmed that emerging markets tend to be faster growing. Of the 11 "fastest-growing economies" at the end of , all but one were emerging-market countries. Of the 11 "lowest-growth economies," eight were more mature developed markets.

The authors then looked at the connection between faster-growing economies and investor returns - and here reached some surprising conclusions. Each year, countries were ranked based on the growth of their economy over the past five years in "real terms," after inflation was taken out. They first looked at the 17 countries for which their data go back years and compared the pace of growth with stock market returns.

Going back years, there was a negative correlation between the fastest-growing economies and the returns they provided to investors - in other words the slowest-growing countries provided the best returns, the fastest-growing the worst. The returns for the slowest-growing economies averaged just under 8 per cent, the returns for the fastest-growing economies averaged about 5 per cent. Remember that the countries in the fastest- and slowest-growing categories changed every year, depending on growth in the previous five years.

The authors also looked at their full sample of 59 countries, for which data do not go back as far - and here the results were even more striking. The slowest-growing economies averaged stock market returns of more than 10 per cent - compared with between 5 and 6 per cent for the rest of the sample.

And the economies with the very worst stock market returns? Those that had just experienced the fastest economic growth. The study authors concluded: National equity markets have behaved rather like stocks within a market: The authors identify a number of possible reasons for this.

Countries with faster-growing economies tend to have higher stock market valuations, as future growth has already been priced into share values. Valuations in these economies may be overstating the good news from expected future growth. And since emerging markets generally have less-developed capital markets, it may be that the best investment opportunities are in private companies that are unavailable to investors. The research by the London Business School professors mirrors the study of the U.

In his book The Future for Investors: Why the Tried and the True Triumphs Over the Bold and the New , he demonstrated the disappointing experience from investing in stocks of the fastest-growing U. None of this means that investing in faster-growing emerging markets can't provide good returns for investors - there are clearly some great companies there that will be terrific investments.

But it does suggest that investors need to be very selective about the companies they buy in emerging markets - based on historical experience, buying these markets as a whole has high odds of a disappointing outcome.

Woman cleaning in Berlin, Germany: In the year following the financial crisis, economic activity declined in half of all countries in the world. Our analysis in Chapter 2 of the October World Economic Outlook shows that in many countries output is still well below levels that would have prevailed had output followed its precrisis trend. In the decade since the collapse of US investment bank Lehman Brothers sparked the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression, regulation and supervision of the financial sector have been strengthened considerably.

This has reduced the risk of another crisis, with all its attendant woes—unemployment, foreclosures, bankruptcies. But a new risk has emerged: Shopping center in Warsaw, Poland: Since the mids, inflation in emerging market economies has been remarkably low and stable, in sharp contrast to the s. A driver from the Malaysian ride-hailing tech startup, Grab, picks up a passenger in Jakarta, Indonesia: Children in early childhood education in Indonesia: Girls on their first day of school: As your list of things to do gets longer and the days grow shorter, you know summer is fading, just like your tan.

To help you quickly catch up on the news and policy debates of the summer—if you live in the Northern Hemisphere—our editors have put together a list of our top reads on economics and finance. Uncategorized unemployment wages youth. Chart of the Week: The Wealth of Nations: