Although it is common to refer to draught beer containers of any size as barrels, in the UK this is strictly correct only if the container holds 36 imperial gallons. In the oil industry, following the definition of the American Petroleum Institute , a standard barrel of oil is often taken to mean the amount of oil that at a standard pressure Whisky distiller Jameson notably purchases barrels used by Franciscan Well brewery for their Shandon Stout to produce a whisky branded as "Jameson Caskmates". In some cases this can provide finishing characteristics that are desired by the barrel user.
Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak Quercus robur and white oak Quercus petraea or from American white oak Quercus alba and typically have standard sizes: Modern barrels and casks can also be made of aluminum, stainless steel, and different types of plastic , such as HDPE.
Someone who makes barrels is called a "barrel maker" or cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage. Other types include, but are not limited to: Barrels have a variety of uses, including storage of liquids such as water and oil, fermenting wine , arrack , and sake , and maturing beverages such as wine , cognac , armagnac , sherry , port , whisky , and beer. The term can also refer to roughly cylindrical containers made of modern materials like plastic.
An "aging barrel" is used to age wine ; distilled spirits such as whisky , brandy , or rum ; beer ; tabasco sauce ; or in smaller sizes traditional balsamic vinegar. When a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in compare to microoxygenation where oxygen is deliberately added.
Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation , a portion known as the "angels' share". Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune and sherry are not.
Beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these compounds depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried, and the degree of "toast" applied during manufacture. Barrels used for aging are typically made of French or American oak , but chestnut and redwood are also used. Some Asian beverages e. In Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in oak or in earthenware.
Some wines are fermented "on barrel", as opposed to in a neutral container like steel or wine-grade HDPE high-density polyethylene tanks. Wine can also be fermented in large wooden tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called "open-tops".
Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, with either elliptical or round heads. The tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are slightly different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas. Bulk wines are sometimes more cheaply flavored by soaking in oak chips or added commercial oak flavoring instead of being aged in a barrel because of the much lower cost.
The casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving "the space of two fists" empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. Sherry is also commonly swapped between barrels of different ages, a process that is known as Solera. Laws in several jurisdictions require that whisky be aged in wooden barrels. The law in the United States requires that " straight whisky " with the exception of corn whisky must be stored for at least two years in new, charred oak containers.
International laws require any whisky bearing the label " Scotch " to be distilled and matured in Scotland for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks. These finishing barrels frequently aged a different spirit such as rum or wine. Other distillers, particularly those producing Scotch, often disassemble five used bourbon barrels and reassemble them into four casks with different barrel ends for aging Scotch, creating a type of cask referred to as a hogshead. Maturing is very important for a good brandy , which is typically aged in oak casks.
The wood used for those barrels is selected because of its ability to transfer certain aromas to the spirit. Some types of tequila are aged in oak barrels to mellow its flavor. Like with other spirits, longer aging results in a more pronounced flavor. Traditional balsamic vinegar is aged in a series of wooden barrels.
Since its invention in , the pepper mash used to make Tabasco sauce is aged for three years in previously used oak whisky barrels. Beers are sometimes aged in barrels which were previously used for maturing wines or spirits. This is most common in darker beers such as stout, which is sometimes aged in oak barrels identical to those used for whisky.
Whisky distiller Jameson notably purchases barrels used by Franciscan Well brewery for their Shandon Stout to produce a whisky branded as "Jameson Caskmates". Cask ale is aged in the barrel usually steel for a short time before serving. The price per barrel was steadily decreasing which had widespread effects on the resource availability and demand in the region. You Also Might Like How to Motivate and Retain Employees - Essentials It is imperative for any business organization to retain the top employees by means of motivation.
An engaged workforce is a productive workforce. Businesses cannot achieve desired goals without experienced and qualified staff. Macroeconomic Factors and the Management The fact that the conditions are not exactly the same means that an exact conversion is impossible unless the exact expansion coefficient of the crude is known, and this will vary from one crude oil to another.
For a light oil with an API gravity of 35, warming the oil from Conversely, a heavy oil with an API gravity of 20 might only increase in volume by 0. If physically measuring the density at a new temperature is not possible, then tables of empirical data can be used to accurately predict the change in density. In turn, this allows maximum accuracy when converting between standard bbl and standard m 3.
International commodity exchanges will often set an arbitrary conversion factor for benchmark crude oils for financial accounting purposes. Regulatory authorities in producing countries set standards for measurement accuracy of produced hydrocarbons, where such measurements affect taxes or royalties to the government. A barrel can technically be used to specify any volume. Since the actual nature of the fluids being measured varies along the stream, sometimes qualifiers are used to clarify what is being specified.
In the oil field, it is often important to differentiate between rates of production of fluids, which may be a mix of oil and water, and rates of production of the oil itself.
In other circumstances, it can be important to include gas in production and consumption figures. Normally, gas amount is measured in standard cubic feet or cubic metres for volume as well as in kg or Btu which don't depend on pressure or temperature.
But when necessary, such volume is converted to a volume of oil of equivalent enthalpy of combustion. Production and consumption using this analogue is stated in barrels of oil equivalent per day boed. In the case of water injection wells, in the United States it is common to refer to the injectivity rate in barrels of water per day bwd.
In general, water injection rates will be stated in the same units as oil production rates, since the usual objective is to replace the volume of oil produced with a similar volume of water to maintain reservoir pressure.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see BBL disambiguation. English wine cask units and English brewery cask units. For the cactus known as the "blue barrel cactus", see Echinocactus horizonthalonius. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The discussion page may contain suggestions. The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Retrieved 2 May Traditional and Commercial Barrel Sizes". Retrieved 26 April A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man and Measurement. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 13 January Guide for the Use of SI units.
Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 31 January Canadian National Energy Board. Archived from the original on 21 February Units and Systems of Units.