The drumming is usually fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach beats per minute. Pop When the World Falls Apart: In and , Northern European metal acts began to release music influenced by these bands or the older ones from the first wave.
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For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons; deadly serious attempts to unite the true believers". Many bands write about the mythology and folklore  of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions.
A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few e. Arckanum have lyrics in archaic languages. Some doom metal -influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, nihilism, introspection, self-harm and suicide. Many bands choose not to play live. Sincerity, authenticity and extremity are valued above all else". Bands such as Mayhem and Gorgoroth are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood.
Black metal artists often appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands  and inverted crosses and pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance. The imagery of black metal reflects its lyrics and ideology. Black metal album covers are typically dark and tend to be atmospheric or provocative; some feature natural or fantasy landscapes for example Burzum 's Filosofem and Emperor's In the Nightside Eclipse while others are violent, sexually transgressive, sacrilegious, or iconoclastic for example Marduk 's Fuck Me Jesus and Dimmu Borgir 's In Sorte Diaboli.
The earliest black metal artists had very limited resources, which meant that recordings would often be done in homes or basements,  giving their recordings a distinctive " lo-fi " quality. However, even when success allowed access to professional studios, many artists instead chose to continue making lo-fi recordings.
Many have claimed that black metal was originally intended only for those who were part of the scene and not for a wider audience. The conventional history of black metal is that pioneers like Venom , Bathory and Hellhammer were part of a "first wave", and that a "second wave" was begun by the early Norwegian scene, especially by Mayhem vocalist, Dead's suicide;  Mayhem's leader, Euronymous, who founded the Norwegian scene after Dead's suicide;  and Darkthrone's album A Blaze in the Northern Sky.
Occult and Satanic lyrical themes were present in the music of heavy metal and rock bands of the late s and early s such as Black Sabbath and Coven. In the late s, the form of rough and aggressive heavy metal played by the British band Motörhead gained popularity.
Warrior of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost credited English music group Discharge as "a revolution, much like Venom", saying, "When I heard the first two Discharge records, I was blown away. I was just starting to play an instrument and I had no idea you could go so far. The use of corpse paint in the black metal imagery was mainly influenced by the American s rock band Kiss. The first wave of black metal refers to those bands during the s who influenced the black metal sound and formed a prototype for the genre.
They were often speed metal or thrash metal bands. The term "black metal" was coined by the English band Venom with their second album Black Metal Although deemed thrash metal rather than black metal by today's standards,  the album's lyrics and imagery focused more on anti-Christian and Satanic themes than any before it.
Their music was fast, unpolished in production and with raspy or grunted vocals. Venom's members also adopted pseudonyms, a practice that would become widespread among black metal musicians. Another major influence on black metal was the Swedish band Bathory.
The band, led by Thomas Forsberg a. Quorthon , created "the blueprint for Scandinavian black metal". With Blood Fire Death and the two following albums, Bathory pioneered the style that would become known as Viking metal.
Hellhammer, from Switzerland, "made truly raw and brutal music"  with Satanic lyrics, and became an important influence on later black metal;  "Their simple yet effective riffs and fast guitar sound were groundbreaking, anticipating the later trademark sound of early Swedish death metal".
The lyrics also became more personal, with topics about inner feelings and majestic stories. But for a couple of years, Celtic Frost was one of the world's most extreme and original metal bands, with a huge impact on the mid's black metal scene".
The Danish band Mercyful Fate influenced the Norwegian scene with their imagery and lyrics. Other early black metal bands include Sabbat formed in Japan ,  Parabellum formed in Colombia ,  Salem formed in Israel and Mortuary Drape formed in Italy. Their debut album, Scorn Defeat , became "a cult classic in the black metal world". In and , Northern European metal acts began to release music influenced by these bands or the older ones from the first wave.
In Finland, there emerged a scene that mixed the first wave black metal style with elements of death metal and grindcore ; this included Beherit , Archgoat and Impaled Nazarene , whose debut album Tol Cormpt Norz Norz Norz Rock Hard journalist Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann considers a part of war metal's roots.
The Norwegian band Mayhem's concert in Leipzig with Eminenz and Manos in , later released as Live in Leipzig , was said to have had a strong influence on the East German scene  and is even called the unofficial beginning of German black metal. The second wave of black metal began in the early s and was spearheaded by the Norwegian black metal scene. During — , a number of Norwegian artists began performing and releasing a new kind of black metal music; this included Mayhem , Darkthrone , Burzum , Immortal , Emperor , Satyricon , Enslaved , Thorns , Carpathian Forest and Gorgoroth.
They developed the style of their s forebears into a distinct genre. The wearing of corpse paint became standard, and was a way for many black metal artists to distinguish themselves from other metal bands of the era. Artists were bitterly opposed to Christianity and presented themselves as misanthropic Devil worshippers who wanted to spread terror, hatred and evil. Ihsahn of Emperor said that they sought to "create fear among people"  and "be in opposition to society".
It quickly became the focal point of Norway's emerging black metal scene and a meeting place for many of its musicians; especially the members of Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Thorns. With the rising popularity of his band and others like it, the underground success of Euronymous's label is often credited for encouraging other record labels, who had previously shunned black metal acts, to then reconsider and release their material. On 8 April , Mayhem vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin who called himself "Dead" committed suicide while alone in a house shared by the band.
Before going onstage he went to great lengths to make himself look like a corpse and would cut his arms while singing. Dead's suicide note apologized for firing the weapon indoors and ended: One of these photographs was later used as the cover of a bootleg live album, Dawn of the Black Hearts.
Euronymous made necklaces with bits of Dead's skull and gave some to musicians he deemed worthy. I think it was Dead's suicide that really changed the scene". Two other members of the early Norwegian scene would later commit suicide: In , members of the Norwegian black metal scene began a wave of arson attacks on Christian churches.
By , there had been at least 50 such attacks in Norway. The first to be burnt down was Norway's Fantoft stave church. Police believe Varg Vikernes of Burzum was responsible. Members of the Swedish scene started to burn churches in Those convicted for church burnings showed no remorse and described their actions as a symbolic "retaliation" against Christianity in Norway.
Many, such as Infernus and Gaahl of Gorgoroth, continue to praise the church burnings, with the latter saying "there should have been more of them, and there will be more of them". Manheim claimed that many arsons were "just people trying to gain acceptance" within the black metal scene. Which is a very good beginning, of course". In early , animosity arose between Euronymous and Vikernes.
When they arrived a confrontation began and Vikernes stabbed Euronymous to death. His body was found outside the apartment with 23 cut wounds—two to the head, five to the neck, and sixteen to the back.
It has been speculated that the murder was the result of either a power struggle, a financial dispute over Burzum records or an attempt at outdoing a stabbing in Lillehammer the year before by Faust.
He says that Euronymous had plotted to stun him with an electroshock weapon , tie him up and torture him to death while videotaping the event. Vikernes was arrested on 19 August , in Bergen. Some of them confessed to their crimes and implicated others. However, he only confessed to the latter. Two churches were burnt the day he was sentenced, "presumably as a statement of symbolic support". Blackthorn was sentenced to eight years in prison for being an accomplice to the murder.
He was re-arrested shortly after while driving a stolen car with various weapons. Black metal scenes also emerged on the European mainland during the early s, inspired by the Norwegian scene or the older bands, or both. In Poland , a scene was spearheaded by Graveland and Behemoth. In Belgium , there were acts such as Ancient Rites and Enthroned. Black Funeral , from Houston , formed in , was associated with black magic and Satanism.
The band then abandoned black metal for gothic metal,  becoming one of the most successful extreme metal bands to date. John Serba of AllMusic commented that their first album "made waves in the early black metal scene, putting Cradle of Filth on the tips of metalheads' tongues, whether in praise of the band's brazen attempts to break the black metal mold or in derision for its 'commercialization' of an underground phenomenon that was proud of its grimy heritage".
When asked if he considers Cradle of Filth a black metal band, vocalist Dani Filth said he considers them black metal in terms of philosophy and atmosphere, but not in other ways. The controversy surrounding Absurd drew attention to the German black metal scene. In , the members murdered a boy from their school, Sandro Beyer. It was recorded in prison and released in Poland by Graveland drummer Capricornus.
In the beginning of the second wave, the different scenes developed their own styles; as Alan 'Nemtheanga' Averill says, "you had the Greek sound and the Finnish sound, and the Norwegian sound". After Euronymous's death, "some bands went more towards the Viking metal and epic style, while some bands went deeper into the abyss". It was said he was killed "out of anger" because he had "harassed" the two men.
Nödtveidt received a year sentence. The Swedish band Shining , founded in , began writing music almost exclusively about depression and suicide, musically inspired by Strid and by Burzum's albums Hvis lyset tar oss and Filosofem. According to Erik Danielsson, when his band Watain formed in there were very few bands who took black metal as seriously as the early Norwegian scene had. Kvarforth said, "It seems like people actually [got] afraid again".
The lyrics contain magical formulae from the Liber Azerate and are based on the organization's teachings. A part of the underground scene adopted a Jungian interpretation of the church burnings and other acts of the early scene as the re-emergence of ancient archetypes, which Kadmon of Allerseelen and the authors of Lords of Chaos had implied in their writings. Members of French band Funeral desecrated a grave in Toulon in June , and a year-old black metal fan stabbed a priest to death in Mulhouse on Christmas Eve The early American black metal bands remained underground.
Many were musically inspired by Burzum but did not necessarily adopt Vikernes's ideas. This scene's typical style is a mixture of old school black metal and raw thrash metal influenced by old Celtic Frost, Bathory, Venom and Sodom but also with its own elements.
Melechesh was formed in Jerusalem in , "the first overtly anti-Christian band to exist in one of the holiest cities in the world". Since the s, a number of anti-Islamic and anti-religious black metal bands—whose members come from Muslim backgrounds—have emerged in the Middle East. Janaza, believed to be Iraq 's first female black metal artist, released the demo Burning Quran Ceremony in Its frontwoman, Anahita, claimed her parents and brother were killed by a suicide bomb during the Iraq War.
Metal news website Metalluminati suggests that their claims of being based in Iraq are a hoax. Regarding the sound of black metal, there are two conflicting groups within the genre: One supporter of this train of thought is Blake Judd of Nachtmystium , who has rejected labeling his band black metal for its departure from the genre's typical sound.
Since the s, different styles of black metal have emerged and some have melded Norwegian-style black metal with other genres:. Ambient black metal is a style of black metal which relies on heavy incorporation of atmospheric, sometimes dreamy textures, and is therefore less aggressive. It often features synthesizers or classical instrumentation, typically for melody or ethereal "shimmering" over the wall of sound provided by the guitars.
The music is usually slow to mid paced with rare blast beat usage, without any abrupt changes and generally features slowly developing, sometimes repetitive melodies and riffs, which separate it from other black metal styles. Subject matter usually concerns nature, folklore, mythology, and personal introspection. Black-doom, also known as blackened doom, is a style that combines the slowness and thicker, bassier sound of doom metal with the shrieking vocals and heavily distorted guitar sound of black metal.
Pioneered by black-doom bands like Opthalamia, Katatonia , Bethlehem , Forgotten Tomb and Shining , depressive suicidal black metal, also known as suicidal black metal, depressive black metal or DSBM, is a style that melds the second wave -style of black metal with doom metal,  with lyrics revolving around themes such as depression, self-harm, misanthropy, suicide and death.
Black 'n' roll is a style of black metal that incorporates elements from s hard rock and rock and roll music. Iskra are probably the most obvious example of second wave black metal -influenced crust punk;  Iskra coined their own phrase "blackened crust" to describe their new style. The Japanese group Gallhammer also fused crust punk with black metal  while the English band Fukpig has been said to have elements of crust punk, black metal, and grindcore.
As Daniel Ekeroth wrote in ,. In a very ironic paradox, black metal and crust punk have recently started to embrace one another. Members of Darkthrone and Satyricon have lately claimed that they love punk, while among crusties, black metal is the latest fashion. In fact, the latest album by crust punk band Skitsystem sounds very black metal--while the latest black metal opus by Darkthrone sounds very punk!
This would have been unimaginable in the early 90s. Blackened death-doom is a genre that combines the slow tempos and monolithic drumming of doom metal , the complex and loud riffage of death metal and the shrieking vocals of black metal.
Blackened death metal is commonly death metal that incorporates musical, lyrical or ideological elements of black metal, such as an increased use of tremolo picking , anti-Christian or Satanic lyrical themes and chord progressions similar to those used in black metal.
Melodic black-death  also known as blackened melodic death metal or melodic blackened death metal  is a genre of extreme metal that describes the style created when melodic death metal bands began being inspired by black metal and European romanticism.
However, unlike most other black metal, this take on the genre would incorporate an increased sense of melody and narrative. War metal    also known as war black metal  or bestial black metal  is an aggressive,  cacophonous,  and chaotic   subgenre of blackened death metal,  described by Rock Hard journalist Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann as "rabid"  and "hammering".
Blackened grindcore is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and grindcore. Blackened thrash metal, also known as black-thrash, [ citation needed ] is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and thrash metal. Folk black metal, pagan metal and Viking metal are styles that incorporates elements of folk music , with pagan metal bands focusing on pagan lyrics and imagery,  and Viking metal bands giving thematic focus on Norse mythology , Norse paganism , and the Viking Age , more influenced by Nordic folk music.
Industrial black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates elements of industrial music. Mysticum , formed in ,  was the first of these groups. Post-black metal is an umbrella term for genres that experiments beyond black metal's conventions and broadened their sounds, evolving past the genre's limits. Blackgaze incorporates common black metal and post-black metal elements such as blast beat drumming and high-pitched screamed vocals with the melodic and heavily distorted guitar styles typically associated with shoegazing.
Psychedelic black metal is a subgenre of black metal which employs the usage of psychedelic elements. Symphonic black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates symphonic and orchestral elements. This may include the usage of instruments found in symphony orchestras piano, violin, cello , flute and keyboards , "clean" or operatic vocals and guitars with less distortion.
Unlike other metal genres, black metal is associated with an ideology and ethos. It is fiercely opposed to Christianity  and the other main institutional religions , Islam and Judaism. Many black metal bands are Satanists and see Satanism as a key part of black metal.
Others advocate ethnic Paganism, "often coupled with nationalism",  although the early Pagan bands did not call themselves 'black metal'. Black metal tends to be misanthropic and hostile to modern society. However, it is argued that followers of Euronymous were anti-individualistic,  and that "Black Metal is characterized by a conflict between radical individualism and group identity and by an attempt to accept both polarities simultaneously".
In his master's thesis, Benjamin Hedge Olson wrote that some artists can be seen as transcendentalists. Dissatisfied with a "world that they feel is devoid of spiritual and cultural significance",  they try to leave or "transcend" their "mundane physical forms" and become one with the divine. Black metal was originally a term for extreme metal bands with Satanic lyrics and imagery. However, most of the 'first wave' bands including Venom, who coined the term 'black metal' were not Satanists and rather used Satanic themes to provoke controversy or gain attention.
One of the few exceptions was Mercyful Fate singer and Church of Satan member King Diamond , whom Michael Moynihan calls "one of the only performers of the '80s Satanic metal who was more than just a poseur using a devilish image for shock value ".
In the early s, many Norwegian black-metallers presented themselves as genuine Devil worshippers. Benjamin Hedge Olson wrote that they "transform[ed] Venom's quasi-Satanic stage theatrics into a form of cultural expression unique from other forms of metal or Satanism" and "abandoned the mundane identities and ambitions of other forms of metal in favor of religious and ideological fanaticism".
Bands with a Norwegian style, but without Satanic lyrics, tended to use other names for their music. An article in Metalion's Slayer fanzine attacked musicians that "care more about their guitars than the actual essence onto which the whole concept was and is based upon", and insisted that "the music itself doesn't come as the first priority".
Others shun Satanism, seeing it as "Judeo-Christian" in origin,   and regard Satanists as perpetuating the "Judeo-Christian" worldview. However, with his third and fourth albums he began "attacking Christianity from a different angle", realizing that Satanism is a "Christian product". Vocalist Gaahl, who considers himself a Norse Shaman,  said: When I use the word 'Satan', it means the natural order, the will of a man, the will to grow, the will to become the superman".
A wide range of political views are found in the black metal scene. The vast majority of black metal bands are not openly political, although there is said to be an undercurrent of romantic and ethnic nationalism in black metal. National Socialist black metal also known as NSBM promotes neo-Nazi or similar beliefs through its lyrics and imagery.
Artists typically meld neo-Nazi ideology with ethnic European paganism, but a few meld these beliefs with Satanism or occultism. Some commentators see this ideology as a natural development of the black metal worldview.
Members of the early Norwegian scene flirted with Nazi themes, but this was largely an attempt to provoke. It is particularly strong in the former Eastern Bloc. Some black metal bands have been wrongly labeled as NSBM for exploring Nazi Germany in their lyrics or referencing it for shock value. NSBM artists are a small minority within the genre. Red and Anarchist black metal also known as RABM or anarchist black metal    promotes ideologies such as anarchism , green anarchism , or Marxism.
It sparked controversy, and death threats were issued against Horde. Norwegian Christian band Antestor adopted a black metal style in the late s. Many black-metallers see "Christian black metal" as an oxymoron  and believe black metal cannot be Christian.
Horde called its music "holy unblack metal"  and Antestor called theirs "sorrow metal". I really don't think they understand what true Black Metal is". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the musical genre. Thrash metal  death metal  hardcore punk  . Vocals electric guitar bass guitar drums. Early Norwegian black metal scene. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness.
You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Pagan metal and Viking metal. National Socialist black metal. Stylus Magazine's Beginner's Guide to Metal". Retrieved 17 May Pop When the World Falls Apart: Music in the Shadow of Doubt. Encyclopedia of heavy metal music. Retrieved 25 August Black Black Black Black No. Retrieved 8 May A Blaze in the Northern Sky".
Retrieved 22 January A Headbanger's Journey motion picture. A Documentary motion picture. Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 22 April The Slayer Mag Diaries. Bazillion Points Books , p. Archived from the original on 24 August Evolution of the Cult. Metal Hammer , March , pp.
Archived from the original on Gorgoroth was founded by Infernus in as a strategy to perpetrate sonic and spiritual violence upon the world in order to bring forth change in peoples perception of being therein. Thus, through metal music, Satans minister on earth summoned an avatara of the forces of darkness and did let it manifestate through a variety of attempts on creating what was perceived as ultimate black metal taking form on stage as well as in a variety of studio recordings.
Black Metal motion picture. The Journal of Contemporary Gothic Studies. Metal Rules the Globe: Heavy Metal Music Around the World. Pixel 2 and 2 XL: Free, unlimited original-quality storage for photos and videos taken with Pixel through the end of , and free, unlimited high-quality storage for photos taken with Pixel afterwards. Refund is based on phone received matching the description provided at time of estimate and will be issued to form of payment used for order.
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